Human Factors In Vehicle Collisions

Human factors in vehicle collisions include all causes that relate to drivers as well as other road users that could contribute to a crash. Examples include visual and auditory acuity, driver behavior, decision-making ability, as well as reaction speed.

A report in 1985 based on American and British crash statistics found intoxication, driver error, and other human causes contribute partly or wholly to about 93 percent of collisions.

An RAC assessment of British drivers revealed that most believed they were more superior than average motorists; a result was revealing overconfidence in their skills. The majority of drivers who’d been in a collision did not consider themselves to be guilty. One study of drivers showed that they found the key fundamentals of good driving were:

•    controlling a vehicle as well as a real knowledge of its capabilities and size
•    reading and acting in response to road signs and conditions, weather and environment
•    alertness, anticipating and understanding other drivers’ behavior.


Although expertise in these abilities is taught and assessed as part of the exam, still, an excellent driver can be in danger of crashing since:

    …being confident in increasingly challenging circumstances is experienced as the indication of driving skill, and that proven ability emphasizes the feeling of confidence, which feeds itself and can grow unchecked until something occurs – a motor vehicle accident or a near-miss.

An AXA study concluded that Irish drivers are extremely safety-conscious compared with other European motorists. On the other hand, this doesn’t translate to considerably lower collision rates in the said country.

Accompanying modifications to road projects have been full-scale adoptions of guidelines of the road along with law enforcement rules that included the setting of speed limits, drink-driving laws, as well as speed enforcement systems like speed cameras. Driving tests in some countries have been extended to assess the behavior of a new driver during emergencies, as well as their hazard awareness.

There are demographic variances in collision rates. For instance, although young individuals are likely to have excellent reaction times, strangely more young male drivers are drawn into car accident settlement. Researchers observe that many display attitudes and behaviors at risk, putting them in more dangerous positions than other users of the road.

This is revealed by actuaries who fix insurance rates for various age groups, partially based on their sex, age, and vehicle choice. Older drivers who have slower reactions are likely to be caught up in a bike accident. However, this hasn’t been the situation since they are liable to drive less and, apparently, more carefully. Attempts to execute traffic rules can be made difficult by driver behavior and local circumstances. In 1969, Leeming advised that there’s a sense of balance to be implemented when “improving” a road’s safety.

On the contrary, a location that doesn’t look dangerous could have a high collision frequency. In part, this is if drivers view a situation as dangerous, they pay more attention. Accidents could tend to occur when traffic conditions or hazardous road are not apparent at a single glance, or where the circumstances are too complicated for a human to observe and respond to the distance and time available. High frequency of collision is not the indication of the high injury hazard. Accidents are common in places of high vehicular congestion, but fatal accidents happen strangely on rural roads during nighttime when traffic is quite light.

This occurrence has been perceived in risk compensation study, where the anticipated decreases in accident rates haven’t occurred after technical or legislative changes. One research showed that the introduction of better-quality brakes caused more aggressive and rash driving, and another claimed that required seat belt laws haven’t been accompanied by an evidently attributed reduction in overall death rate. Most risk compensation claims offsetting the regulation vehicle effects and use of belt policies has been disproved by research utilizing more precise information.

In the 90s, studies of Hans Monderman concerning driver behavior brought him to the understanding that regulations and signs had a nasty effect on the ability of a driver to cooperate safely with other drivers or road users. Monderman developed the shared space standard, based on the woonerven principles of the 70s. He stated that the elimination of road clutter while letting drivers, as well as other road users, move around with equal precedence, could aid drivers to distinguish environmental clues. They depended exclusively on their cognitive skills, decreasing traffic speeds completely, and causing lower road casualties and congestion.

Some collisions are intended; for example, staged crashes involve no less than one party who expects to smash a vehicle so as to submit well-paid claims to a coverage company. During the 1990s, in the USA, criminals hired Latin settlers to crash cars purposely, frequently by driving in front of another car and hitting the brakes. It was a risky and illegal job, and these Latinos were usually paid $100 only. Jose Luis Lopez Perez passed away when he staged such maneuver, resulting in a systematic study that revealed the increasing incidence of this kind of collision.

Personal Injury Claims, Wet Floor Signs and Accident Lawyers

There are no better means to relax after work than getting a few shots with coworkers at the bar. However, just when you were all set to approach the barkeeper for the tab, a surprising thing occurred: you slipped and fell. You realized that you’re lying on the floor, agonizing an injured hamstring and a concussion–all because a careless staff failed to place a “wet floor” sign when there should’ve been one. Now you need an accident lawyer.

A business man with his working bag
A business man with his working bag

The situation above may be bound by a legal argument, or can be regarded as a recoverable personal injury. According to the calculus of neglect, putting a wet floor sign is mandatory even though there’s a tiny chance of an individual slipping. If the slip caused an injury or damage, the owner of the establishment could be found responsible for compensation damages. In these times, it’s sensible to get assistance from a trustworthy personal injury lawyer to know whether you meet the requirements for filing a claim.

A personal injury attorney at law offers legal representation to an individual who asserts to have suffered injuries– physically or psychologically–because of others’ negligence. These attorneys are skilled and qualified to practice whichever field of law, however, they concentrate on a particular area known as “tort law.” Tort law includes non-economic or economic damages and civil wrongs to an individual’s rights, property, or reputation. A few cases the accident lawyer deals with are not limited to work injuries, slip and fall accidents, and automobile accidents.

The amount of such claim is discerned using various factors such as the loss of earnings (the past and future), property damages, medical expenses, as well as psychological damage. Insurance companies utilize numerous “damage formulas.” Remember that every claim is different, so it is best to get medical evidence initially.

Personal Injury Law: What Is It and How Does It Affect You?

There are various kinds of situations and incidents that could wind up with you requiring to know what personal injury law is. Knowing a few terms and circumstances you could face in the future can aid you in case an injury or an accident happens. Aside from genuine legal counsel, knowing several general legal ideas can be pretty helpful.

What is a Personal Injury?

A Personal Injury happens when somebody suffers some kind of damage or harm from a situation or accident caused by another individual weather the accident was deliberate or not. The injuries acquired can be the liability of the individual who made the accident happen or who was negligent.

A working knowledge about personal injury law is vital for any assurance of compensation that you can get from any personal injury case in the future.
A working knowledge about personal injury law is vital for any assurance of compensation that you can get from any personal injury case in the future.

Dealing With Personal Injury Cases

Disagreements can range from merely simple negotiations with the insurance company of the other party to formal proceedings through court. A personal injury case is commonly resolved by means of an informal settlement prior to the filing of a case. It is sensible to get the counsel and advice of a personal injury lawyer to assist you.

Importance of A Personal Injury Attorney?

If you or someone you know have been hurt where you state that somebody – which can be an individual, corporation, business or governmental organization- you might have to file a complaint or lawsuit, and this is best dealt with for you by an attorney who focuses on personal injury.


What is a Personal Injury Lawyer?

Any PI lawsuit needs a certain degree of comprehension of the case’s facts other than the process, as well as the law. It will be best to refer to an experienced and qualified PI lawyer to determine if you have a case. An accidental injury attorney has the experience and training to guide and help you through the extremely complex and occasionally frightening muddle that constitutes the injury case process. They will give you advice, negotiate and fight for you.

Do I Have a Viable Injury Case?

Your PI lawyer will examine all of your case’s details, from questioning you regarding your side of the situation, to studying any accident or police reports. Your case may need some special investigation, consultations or research with other experts. After the first consultation, your attorney will propose the best option.

Those are just some aspects of personal injury law that you need to know. If you want more information about personal injury law, feel free to browse through the different content in this site.

Want To Know The Different Facets of A Personal Injury Law Firm?

The personal injury law firm today has the primary goal of helping clients compensate the harm that was done to them by other people’s actions. This is frequently called “tort” practice. In essence, a tort is an unlawful act causing an injury to a party permitting them to recompense from the offender. Where physical injury is involved, lawyers who specialize in this legal field will act in support of the injured individual to aid them in financial losses due to the injury. This representation takes in more than just a court appearance.

Identifying the Causes of Action

The initial step that a law firm will carry out on behalf of their client is to find the case’s potential legal issues and, most essentially, the fundamentals of probable recovery for the victims and their family. A mere accident could cause various claims of wrongful action; gross negligence, negligence, and intended infliction of emotional pain are just a few examples of the types of actions that could cause recovery.

The personal injury law firm today has the primary goal of helping clients compensate the harm that was done to them by other people’s actions.
The personal injury law firm today has the primary goal of helping clients compensate the harm that was done to them by other people’s actions.

Once the causes of action are identified, the next step is to investigate the circumstances. This can include hiring outside investigators or experts to acquire evidence and examine the circumstances so as to establish what caused the injuries. “Prima facie” is the known legal term, meaning to be valid or true theory at initial impression.

Identifying the Damages

As part of their representation, personal injury attorneys will distinguish the damages that their client has undergone, and set a financial value to show to the opposing party, either as a negotiation or, if needed, at a trial on the case’s merits. These compensations can be various things:

– Present and future medical costs. The costs of getting medical treatment for the injuries you acquired, along with whatever future costs, like physical therapy, can all be recovered from the offender. The attorney will often negotiate with the medical providers about getting treatment or settling unsettled bills during the case’s pendency.

Where physical injury is involved, lawyers who specialize in this legal field will act in support of the injured individual to aid them in financial losses due to the injury.
Where physical injury is involved, lawyers who specialize in this legal field will act in support of the injured individual to aid them in financial losses due to the injury.

– Suffering and pain. The psychological injuries due to a tortuous action can also be recovered. Courts have recently extended this damage element to take in hedonic damages such as the loss of pleasures in life that the injured individual cannot do any longer because of the injuries.

– Loss of consortium. An injured person’s spouse is also authorized to recover from losing their loved one’s companionship due to the sustained injuries.
– Economic loss. This kind of loss encompasses lost wages, lost earning capability in the future, and other financial areas that are impacted by the mishap and the sustained injuries.

Resolution of Claims

An experienced personal injury lawyers ultimate objective is to find a solution to the client’s claims, and assert that fair compensation is rewarded for the incurred losses. This can occur through negotiating with the offender’s counsel, mediation or arbitration, or, if required, litigation. While negotiating is the ideal way of resolving, the trial lawyer must be ready at all times to present the case to get justice for a client.

What Injuries Are Serious Enough to Merit a Trial?

Wondering if your injury is serious enough to make a claim? This section talks about some of the injuries which are serious enough to meet a trial.

Threshold Injuries

Threshold injuries are extremely serious injuries. In order to fit in this group, the injury should have resulted in major damage and should also be permanent, or limit an individual’s ability to perform normal, day-to-day tasks for a particular period of time.

Numerous states utilize what is called the ‘Threshold Injury Doctrine.’ If you acquired injuries in a vehicular accident and fail in meeting the threshold, then your case may perhaps be dismissed. Though the different states term threshold injuries in a different way, a few are general to all.

Threshold injuries include:

• Significant limitation or loss of a body organ
• Fractures
• Significant scarring or disfigurement
• Dismemberment
• Death

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A medically-certified impairment or injury, that might be non-permanent, preventing you from doing tasks that are usual and customary for at least ninety days of the one-hundred eighty days after your injury.

Decide to file a court case carefully. You wouldn’t like to file one then have it instantly dismissed. If the injuries you acquired do not meet the threshold, and you reside in a state that adheres to the policy, then provide extremely serious consideration to negotiating your case. Regardless of the matter, it is always a great idea to consult a lawyer


Arbitration can occur after negotiations fail, but prior to filing a court case. It is similar going to court, and not really having to go there. In arbitration, both parties go for a third party called an arbitrator (or arbiter), who considers both parties and settle on the outcome. In most instances, once the arbitrator come to a decision, it can’t be appealed.

Arbitration is a good option to filing a case. There are different types, counting one that ensures you will receive no less than some amount of cash. Unlike filing a case, arbitration takes a smaller amount of time, since the court hearing can be settled quickly. The costs are much lower as well.

Statute of Limitations

For filing lawsuits, there are what we call Statutes of Limitations or time limits. If you fail in filing your lawsuit prior to the deadline of that time limit, you can no longer file a claim authentically. And you might be left with nothing.

For personal injury cases, every state has its very own statute of limitations. The majority are between 2 and 3 years, so make sure to review the laws your state. The state where the mishap took place is the place whose statute normally applies. With only some exceptions, it is also the place where the court case should be filed.

Overview Of Filing A First-party Claim Under Your Own Insurance

If you acquired injuries in a vehicle accident, then you may need to file a claim against your own insurance provider, instead of against the other party. A personal injury claim against your insurance is called a “first-party claim,” while a claim against the party at fault is called a “third-party claim.” (List of Top Questions after an Auto Accident)

If you reside in Puerto Rico or a no-fault state, then you don’t have an option. You should file a claim against your own coverage.

3 Reasons for Filing a First-party Claim

1. The responsible party was either uninsured or under-insured. You have UIM insurance.

2. You have PIP (personal injury protection) coverage, and do not have the time to expect the responsible party’s insurance company to begin paying your expenses.

3. You reside in Puerto Rico or a no-fault auto insurance state, and are obligated by the law to do so.

If you acquired injuries in a vehicle accident, then you may need to file a claim against your own insurance, instead of against the other party.
If you acquired injuries in a vehicle accident, then you may need to file a claim against your own insurance, instead of against the other party.


• You do not have to be anxious about which party was to blame. Your insurance pays your claim irrespective of who caused the incident.

• Your present medical expenses are paid, without the need to settle the sum or argue liability with an adjuster.

• You are paid off for future medical expenses that only relate to the mishap.

• Your out-of-pocket bills are compensated (e.g. crutches, medications, etc.)

• You get your benefits quickly, unlike a third-party claim, taking months (or even years!) before negotiation and payment.

• Your stress is reduced, since a first-party claim isn’t an adversarial course.



• You may need to pay your deductible first before your insurance will begin paying for your medical expenses and bills.

• Depending on the state you reside, the most expensive insurance settlement may not be high. A lot of states establish the highest medical coverage under PIP or no-fault at approximately 80% of the total. And the lost wages maximum at only 60%.

• You may need to waive your rights to subjugate.

• You may need to repay your insurance if you get any payment from the responsible party or his/her insurance company.

• You may also need to repay your insurance if you accepted reimbursements from your own medical health plan.

• In a first-party personal injury claim, you cannot get payment for the suffering and pain or emotional misery you underwent due to the accident. You are also forbidden to claim disciplinary damages for deliberate misconduct.

Should You Negotiate a Personal Injury Claim or File a Lawsuit?

Picture yourself being in a car accident and injured because of somebody else’s negligence. You have doctor and hospital bills, costs for bandages and medications, and other ongoing therapy bills. You are hurt and you cannot work. The pain you endure continues day by day. What do you do?

Should you file for a claim and opt for a settlement, or do you file a court case against the guilty driver? A personal injury lawsuit and a personal injury claim are two very different things. It is imperative that you understand which one applies best to your case.

(Car accidents are usual examples, but the info here refers to all kinds of personal injury cases such as slip and falls, defective products, dog bites, etc.)


Difference Between a Lawsuit and Claim

Personal Injury Claim. The claim is between the responsible driver and your insurance company prior to any considered case. The process is a chain of negotiations and discussions between you and the insurance company adjuster. With any luck, the negotiations will lead to a mutual settlement payment, wherein both sides or parties are satisfied.

Personal Injury Lawsuit

The lawsuit is charged when the process of negotiation goes wrong, and cooperation cannot be attained. The breakdown could take place because the adjuster refuses to accept the fact that their insured was responsible for the accident, or does not acknowledge the graveness of your injury to compensate for the amount you are demanding. When claim discussions do not progress, the next thing to do is to file a lawsuit.

A claim starts after the injured party is harmed or is suffering property damage, or both, attributable to the negligence of another driver.
A claim starts after the injured party is harmed or is suffering property damage, or both, attributable to the negligence of another driver.

Beginning a Personal Injury Claim

A claim starts after the injured party is harmed or is suffering from property damage, or both, attributable to the negligence of another driver. To cover the ensuing costs, the injured party pursues the responsible driver, who takes the issue over to the insurance company.

As soon as the insurance company is informed, it produces a claim number then hands over the case to an adjuster. The adjuster establishes a claim and makes contact with the injured party to discuss a settlement. If both parties can decide on a settlement, a court case won’t be needed to be filed.

In order to resolve the case, the adjuster requires evidence that the mishap was caused by his/her insured (the responsible driver), that his/her insured was careless, and that the damage of the injured party are sufficiently severe to be eligible for a settlement. And to acquire this evidence, the adjuster will look into the facts and details of the case.

This investigation could include:

• Evaluating your medical bills and charts
• Conversing with you along with the other accident’s witnesses
• Assessing the police report
• Visiting the accident scene and taking photographs

We hope this article was helpful to you. You will find more information about personal injury law in out site.

What to Do Immediately After an Accident

If you are injured in a vehicular accident, the first thing that you should do is dial the emergency hotline and report the accident. If you’re seriously injured, somebody else must call for you.

Reports from police and EMS (Emergency Medical Services) will be important documents in the personal injury case you’re in. The report of the EMS will take in an account of your injury as well as the medical care they provided during the scene. In addition to that, EMS may relocate you to the closest hospital, where medical practitioners will document more medical records.

A police report includes in depth information regarding the errors of the responsible driver (including issued tickets), names as well as contact information of the witnesses, insurance information, accident diagrams, weather conditions, and more.


Do not allow the other driver to talk you out of dialing the police.

Always call the police if anyone is injured or any property was damaged. Don’t agree to any arrangements that don’t involve making an official accident report. If you plan on filing a personal injury or property damage claim against the other driver, a police report will be very helpful.

EMS and the police can only document certain information in their reports. Try to gather any additional information you think may help during claim negotiations. The more information you have, the better your chance of a higher settlement.

Note down the following immediately after the accident:

• The negligent driver’s name, telephone number, address, e-mail address, as well as any other contact info you can acquire.

• The driver’s name of the insurance company, telephone number, as well as his or her policy number.

• The all witnesses’ names and contact info.

• Your immediate observations and opinion.

Also take pictures of the scene of the accident, your injuries, and the damages inflicted on the car. If you are badly injured, then request somebody at the scene to assist you in taking photographs.

If you are injured in a vehicular accident, the first thing that you should do is dial the emergency hotline and report the accident.
If you are injured in a vehicular accident, the first thing that you should do is dial the emergency hotline and report the accident.

In The Next Few Days

You will have to consult a doctor to acquire treatment for the injuries you’ve acquired. In order to have a strong case, you should have independent and credible medical documentation and records. Be certain to obtain recommendations from any specialists that have treated specific injuries.

Watch out for clinics and doctors that advertise directly to victims of personal injury. There are countless of these medical professionals that have needlessly extended the cost and length of the treatment. Insurance adjusters are acquainted with who these guys are, and instantly mark down their standing, and this requirement of standing can be particularly damaging if the case proceeds to court.

Consult your own physician first. If you do not have a doctor, ask for recommendations from friends and family. Look for doctors who’ll treat your injuries objectively and provide the medical records required to support you and your case. Accept therapy and medical treatment as your physician orders.
An adjuster (from the insurance company) will contact you soon after the incident. The sole job of the claims adjuster is to look into and settle accident claims.

The best means of making a good impression to an adjuster is to be always ready, show complete evidence of the negligence of the insured, and verify your property damage and injuries. That is what personal injury lawyers do. With the right information and preparation, you can also do the same.

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Why You Need the Services of a Personal Injury Attorney

Are you having second thoughts as to whether you need a personal injury attorney in a personal injury case or not? If you are, then we will help you make up your mind in this section.

You need a lawyer for any severe injury case, or whichever case that requires expert legal knowledge or advanced financial support. Lawyers have the sufficient experience to negotiate settlements, and, if necessary, can file a court case. They can dedicate the huge amounts of cash and time required to bring cases to trial.

A lawsuit’s advance costs can entail taking the private investigators and expert witnesses into service, paying for depositions and court reporters, and a lot more. The most difficult cases, particularly against big businesses, can cost you a lot of money.

You need a lawyer for any severe injury case, or whichever case that requires expert legal knowledge or advanced financial support.
You need a lawyer for any severe injury case, or whichever case that requires expert legal knowledge or advanced financial support.

Cases that usually do require a lawyer include:

• Extreme injury cases, like dismemberment, wrongful death, compound fractures, scarring or major disfigurement, paralysis, eternal loss of function of body organs, long-term disability, permanent illness, as well as toxic exposure.

• Medical malpractice with intricate evidence and medical testimony.

• Class action cases, counting drug lawsuits against pharmaceutical corporations.

• Complex assessments of suffering and pain.

• Police brutality.

• Cases that need huge amounts of cash to prepare.

• Law questioning, making and filing of lawful briefs and memo.

• Hiring professional witnesses.

• Other cases that involve very multifaceted and extended evidences.

Making a Decision

Each case is special. If the proof or evidence is clear, dealing with your own case could cause a higher form of settlement, although not always. Nothing can assure you with a successful result. The choice to resolve your own claim or employ a lawyer rests generally depends upon the graveness of your injuries.

You may believe that your case is extremely strong, however, the insurance company might disagree with you. Instead of acquiring a small amount of settlement (or worse, nothing at all), it is best to employ a personal injury lawyer.

Anyway, it is always a great idea to obtain a free consultation.

Know The Characteristics Of A Medical Malpractice Case

Are you trying to figure out whether or not you have a medical malpractice case? Well, if you are, then we will do our best to explain the different characteristics of a medical malpractice case in this section.

According to professional malpractice attorneys in the United States, a medical malpractice claim requires the following broad characteristics:

1. Failure to give the appropriate standard of care. The law declares that there are standard medical principles by which healthcare experts should stick to while providing care to individuals. The medical career distinguishes these standards.

Patients are expected to experience these medical standards while getting treatment. If the standard are ignored, then there could be medical negligence.

Failure to give an appropriate standard of care.
Failure to give an appropriate standard of care.

2. An injury is the effect of negligence. A claim can’t be set if the individual thinks that the hospital or doctor was careless but caused no injury or harm. The individual being treated has to show that the carelessness resulted in the harm or injury, and that it wouldn’t have happened if the healthcare professional or provider had not been careless.

If the patient isn’t happy with the result, then that in itself isn’t medical malpractice. It’s only malpractice when it’s established that the negligence resulted in the injury or harm. An injury without negligence isn’t considered malpractice, and neither is evident neglect if there’s no injury or harm.

3. The injury of the patient should be severe. Lawyers state that in order for a medical malpractice case to be credible, the victim has to confirm that the harm or injury caused by the negligence lead to substantial damages. Attorneys are very expensive to pursue for this purpose. Instances of significant damages include enduring hardship, suffering, having to endure constant pain, significant loss of income, and immobilization of the patient.

If the damages are minor, the victim will most likely pay out more on the claim compared to the final cash recovered.

An injury is the effect of negligence.
An injury is the effect of negligence.

Informed Consent. If the patient doesn’t provide an “informed permission” to a medical operation, the healthcare provider or doctor may be legally responsible if the procedure causes injury or harm, even though it was done perfectly. For instance, if a surgeon didn’t report to the individual that a medical/surgical operation has a 50% risk of brain damage, and that individual suffers one, the doctor will be legally responsible, even though the procedure was carried out perfectly, since the patient could have chosen not to proceed if they had been notified of the dangers.

Researchers in Harvard Medical School showed that a large minority of doctors and healthcare providers don’t think that patients should constantly be told of the entire truth.

Those are the characteristics of a medical malpractice case. Feel free to share or like this post if you think it has answered your question.